Chemists Respond to Climate Change with Sustainable Fuel and Chemical Production

Climate change is a common lecture topic at the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings. At the opening of the 67th Lindau Meeting, William E. Moerner presented the keynote speech prepared by Steven Chu, 1997 Nobel Laureate in physics and former U.S. Secretary of Energy. In his speech, Chu described how clean energy technologies provide an insurance policy against the societal risks of climate change.

At previous meetings, Nobel Laureates Mario Molina, Paul J. Crutzen, and F. Sherwood Rowland have detailed how greenhouse gases produced by burning fossil fuels alter atmospheric chemistry and warms the planet. Reducing greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide emissions, is key to stopping the planet’s warming temperature. But instead of viewing carbon dioxide as a problem, what happens if it is also part of a solution to climate change?

 

Science Breakfast Austria during the 67th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting, Photo/Credit: Julia Nimke/Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting

Science Breakfast Austria during the 67th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting, Credit: Julia Nimke/Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting

 

Research discussed by Nobel Laureates and young scientists at the 67th Lindau Meeting included ways to use carbon dioxide as a renewable source of synthetic fuel and useful chemicals. Currently, fuels and chemicals come from refined and processed oil and natural gas. Producing these compounds from carbon dioxide captured from the atmosphere or factory emissions could be environmentally sustainable because carbon dioxide released during production or consumption is recycled to make new fuel or material. Sustainable and renewable feedstocks are one aspect of green chemistry, a key topic at this year’s meeting.

During a science breakfast hosted by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Science, Research, and Economy on Tuesday morning, Bernard L. Feringa, 2016 Nobel Laureate in Chemistry, outlined three challenges for carbon capture and utilisation: separating carbon dioxide from other gases, efficiently concentrating it, and catalytically converting the inert molecule to useful fuel and chemicals.

In addition to his Nobel-winning work on molecular machines, Feringa also studies catalysis. While working at Shell in the early 1980s, he developed lithium catalysts to reduce carbon dioxide. The project ended after a couple of years, however, when the researchers realised they would need all the lithium in the world just to make a reasonable amount of fuel.

 

and Melissae Fellet during a Poster Session at the 67th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting, Picture/Credit: Christian Flemming/Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

Biswajit Mondal and Melissae Fellet during the Poster Session at the 67th Lindau Meeting, Credit: Christian Flemming/Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

Since then, researchers around the world have developed various electrochemical and photothermal catalysts that reduce carbon dioxide into compounds such as carbon monoxide, formic acid, ethylene and methane. Several young scienists attending the meeting are studying these catalysts, and two presented their work during the poster session.

Biswajit Mondal, at the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, studies the mechanism of iron-porphyrin electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide reduction. With an understanding of the precise molecular changes during every step of the reduction reaction, researchers can then tailor the catalyst structure to enhance the reaction efficiency.

Dayne F. Swearer, at Rice University, combines two reactive functions in one aluminum nanoparticle to unlock new catalytic mechanisms for known reactions. In his nanoparticles, the aluminium core absorbs light and generates an energy carrier called a plasmon, which can alter and enhance the activity of a metal catalyst on the outside of the nanoparticle. For example, a particle with a shell of copper oxide its aluminium core reduces carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide faster and more efficiently than particles made of either material alone.

Back at the science breakfast, Feringa encouraged young scientists to investigate photoredox catalysts that reduce carbon dioxide using absorbed light energy. These catalysts can create a variety of reactive intermediates, including radical anions and cations, which could be used to add carbon dioxide to hydrocarbons. Such reactions provide renewable ways to make building blocks for plastics and other common polymers.

 

Young scientist Anna Eibel during the Science Breakfast, Credit: Julia Nimke/Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

Young scientist Anna Eibel during the Science Breakfast, Credit: Julia Nimke/Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

Renewable routes to acrylic acid, the building block of acrylate polymers common in dental work, are interesting to Anna Eibel, a young scientist at the Graz University of Technology in Austria and a speaker at the science breakfast. She develops new molecules to induce acrylate polymerisation with light at longer wavelengths than the ultraviolet used now.

To really address carbon dioxide emissions, however, renewable routes to synthetic fuels such as methane and methanol are needed. In 1998, George Olah, the 1994 Nobel Laureate in Chemistry, talked about synthetic methanol production from carbon dioxide at the 48th Lindau Meeting, and the topic reappeared at the science breakfast this year.

Chemists are in a unique position to advance renewable fuels and chemicals, Feringa said. The main research questions in this area involve problems of catalysis, electrochemistry, photochemistry, material synthesis and chemical conversions. Feringa encouraged the young scientists to take opportunities to tackle these questions. “Of course you may contribute only a small step, but of course we have to do it. It is our duty to society […] to open opportunities for the future.”

#LiNo17 Daily Recap – Tuesday, 27 June 2017

We are already three days into this year’s chemistry meeting and there are so many interesting things happening. We have collected a huge amount of exhilarating pictures, exceptional lectures and thought-provoking blog contributions. So you can guess that there is so much more that you should definitly check out on our mediatheque than we present to you in our daily recap . Enjoy the following highlights!

 

Video of the day:

“This meeting is about mentorship, and it’s about the future, it’s not about the Nobel Laureates, it is [in fact] about mentoring the next generation of scientists – OUR BEST HOPE FOR THE FUTURE” – Brian Malow has provided us with a live video featuring seven young scientists.

 

 

Picture of the day:

After having the Poster Flashes on Monday, our Poster Session proved to be a success. Frank Biedermann, a young scientist explaining his research about “Supramolecular Sensing Ensembles” to Nobel Laureate Erwin Neher.

67th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting Chemistry, 25.06.2017 - 30.06.2017, Lindau, Germany, Picture/Credit: Christian Flemming/Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings Poster Session

 

For even more pictures from the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings, past and present, take a look at our Flickr account.

 

Blog of the day:

“When scientific issues become publicly controversial, Nobel Laureates have a history of making strong statements at the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings,” writes Melissae Fellet in her new article on science in a post-truth era. Politics and the question of what scientists can do to rebuild trust is one of the main topics being discussed by the participants of the 67th Lindau Meeting.

Post-truth_Slider

Press Talk on ‘Science in a Post-Truth Era’ hosted by Deutsche Welle during the 67th Lindau Meeting. Photo/Credit: Julia Nimke/Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

Do take a look at more of our exciting blog posts.

 

Tweets of the day:

 

Last but not least, follow us on Twitter @lindaunobel and Instagram @lindaunobel and keep an eye out for #LiNo17

 

Over the course of the next four days, we will keep you updated on the 67th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting with our daily recaps. The idea behind it is to bring to you the day’s highlights in a blink of an eye. The daily recaps will feature blog posts, photos and videos from the mediatheque.

#LiNo17 Daily Recap – Sunday, 25 June 2017

“I close my remarks by asking the young students gather this week at the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting to consider joining the effort to combat climate change.” – Steven Chu

Yesterday, the 67th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting started in grand fashion with the festive opening ceremony featuring the warm and heartfelt welcome address by Countess Bettina Bernadotte and a very poignant and moving keynote by Steven Chu. The Nobel Laureate himself was, unfortunately, unable to attend, but his fellow laureate William E. Moerner luckily stepped in to deliver the powerful speech on “Science as an Insurance Policy to the Risks of Climate Change”.

 

Video of the day:

“A changing climate does not respect national boundaries.”
First highlight is Steven Chu’s keynote, read by William Moerner. Chu addressed the highly topical issue of climate change and reminded all of us how important it is to treat the earth well.

Obviously, this is not the only video from yesterday and today! You are more than welcome to browse through our mediatheque for more.

 

Picture of the day:

Standing Ovations
William Moerner’s presentation of Steven Chu’s keynote was one of the most moving moments.

67th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting, 25.06.2017, Lindau, Germany

67th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting, 25.06.2017, Lindau, Germany

For even more pictures from the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings, past and present, take a look at our Flickr account.

 

Blog post of the day:

“A Stellar Meeting Where the Stars Shine Bright, the Science Is Chill, and the Networking Is Chem-Tastic.”
Another highlight is the blog post from science writer Alaina G. Levine. She is back in Lindau for #LiNo17 and gives a preview of the panel discussion on science careers that she will chair on Thursday (replacing Karan Khemka).

Do take a look at more exciting blog posts.

 

Tweets of the day:

Steven Chu delivers a heartfelt plea for  @lindaunobel

 

: German Research Minister Johanna Wanka says “we need free minds and protection against state intervention” in . –

 

Countess Bettina: ‘Scientists cannot ignore what is happening in the world: There is no such thing as splendid isolation in today’s world.’ –

 

Countess Bettina, President of @lindaunobel welcomed the participants during the inauguration of 67th Nobel Laureates Meeting! –

 

: Standing ovation for Steven Chu’s keynote on read by W.E. Moerner –

 

Last but not least, follow us on Twitter @lindaunobel and Instagram @lindaunobel and keep an eye out for #LiNo17

 

Over the course of the next six days, we will keep you updated on the 67th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting with our daily recaps. The idea behind it is to bring to you the day’s highlights in a blink of an eye. The daily recaps will feature blog posts, photos and videos from the mediatheque.

Ben Feringa: Molecular Machines of the Future

Ben Feringa giving the first lecture at the 67th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting. Photo/Credit: Jula Nimke/Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

Nobel Laureate Ben Feringa giving the first lecture at the 67th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting. Photo/Credit: Jula Nimke/Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

The Nobel Laureate gave the #LiNo17 opening lecture with the title ‘The Joy of Discovery’. Ben Feringa grew up on a farm near Groningen, the second of ten siblings. Today, he is professor in Groningen and also received his MSc and PhD degrees there. And just as much as he enjoyed nature as a child, he now enjoys the inifinite possibilities of molecules. In his own words: “We enjoy the adventure into the unkown.” Before starting his lecture, he has some advice in store for the young scientists at the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting: Always look for a challenge, and find teachers who challenge you, persevere, follow your intuition and your dreams – but ‘walk on two feet’, meaning remain realistic, and find a balance between life and research. Looking at his impressive career, and appreciating his obvious delight in his work, it seems that Feringa took his own advice to heart.

It’s truly mind-blowing to see what Ben Feringa and his research group are capable of: they synthesise molecules from inanimate matter that can move autonomously. One striking example are the small ‘spiders’ that you can see crawling around under a microscope. These ‘spiders’ can self-assemble, meaning that several molecules form clusters, and these clusters move completely autonomously as long as ‘fuel’ is provided, in their case sugar. (You can watch the crawling ‘spiders’ in a solution, also called nano-swimmers, on the website of Feringa’s research group, or at the end of his #LiNo17 lecture). Other molecules at Feringa’s Molecular Nanoscience group at the University of Groningen have been fitted with light-sensitive switches, so light of a certain wavelength turns them on and off and also acts as their ‘fuel’.

As Feringa points out himself in his lecture: chemists are great at creating molecules, but it’s extremely difficult to control their dynamic functions – movement, rotation, switches, responses, etc. His most noted invention is his version of the ‘nanocar’ – it was also strongly featured in the 2016 Nobel Prize media coverage. For a nanocar’s engine, you need unidirectional rotation. Feringa and his research group discovered the first man-made molecular rotor that could perform a 360 degree rotation ‘a bit by accident’ in the 1990s. They had been working on an alkene molecule (alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons containing at least one carbon-carbon double bond). This specific alkene could perform a quarter turn in a process called isomerisation: a process in which one molecule is transformed into another with exactly the same atoms, only these atoms are now arranged differently. Suddenly the researchers realised that the molecule had in fact performed a 180 degree turn and hadn’t switched back. Then they wondered: “Maybe we can get it to perform a 360 degree turn.”

 

How the molecular rotor works: double-bond isomerisation and thermal helix inversion (heat) alternate. Image: Ben Feringa group. Source: The Swedish Academy of Sciences

How the molecular rotor works: double-bond isomerisation and thermal helix inversion (heat) alternate. Image: Ben Feringa group. Source: The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

 

Finally, the researchers managed a full rotation with two double-bond isomerisations and two helix inversions induced by heat (see graph above). On the one hand, ‘unidirectional rotation marks the most fundamental breakthrough‘ in the search for molecular motors; on the other hand, the molecule was still too slow – it needed about one hour for the 360 degree turn. Now the researchers set out to build much faster molecules. About sixty different motor designs later, they reached an astounding speed of 10 million rotations per second. But in reality there are some restrictions: for instance, you often cannot get enough energy into these nanosystems to perform at top speed, and the surfaces on which the motors are supposed to perform limit their speed. So realistically, these tiny motors now rotate at about 4000 cycles per second. Next, the researchers fitted four of the enhanced molecules on to axles and added a stator: a molecular four-wheel drive was put on the ‘road’, usually a metal surface.

Today, several research groups around the world build nanocars. And although Feringa’s team received much recognition for their own nanocar, they’re exploring many other possible applications of molecular machines, for instance in medicine: imagine smart drugs that can be ‘switched on’ only at their target area, for instance a tumour. These would be high-precision drugs with very few or even no side-effects, because other body cells would not be affected. In his Lindau lecture, as well as in his Nobel lecture in Stockholm in December 2016, Feringa gave two prominent examples: photo-controlled antibiotics and photo-controlled chemotherapeutics. Into one drug from each category, the Feringa group inserted a light-switch, meaning that the drugs only start working if they’re activated by a certain wavelength of light. The researchers are now working with near-infrared light that has a deep penetration depth, meaning it can even reach remote places deep inside the human body.

 

Nanocar JPG (797x451)

 

With photo-controlled antibiotics, the goal is to ‘train’ the molecules to find their target structures autonomously. Next, their activity would be switched on with an infrared light. Now the drugs would work against a bacterial infection at the target point – no other body cells or bacteria would be affected, making antibiotic restistance more unlikely. And even if the drug leaves the body after treatment, contamination of ground or drinking water would be prevented by precisely engineered half-times of the molecules: they would simply stop being active after a certain amount of time, rendering the build-up of antibiotic restistance outside the human body unlikely as well.

The same holds true for chemotherapeutics: only after a photo-controlled chemotherapeutic reached a tumour, its activity would be switched on, meaning all other body cells would be spared the often severe side-effects. In his Nobel lecture, Feringa describes his dream for future cancer treatments: new imaging technologies like MRI would be linked to a specific laser. First, the patient receives an injection of a photo-controlled chemotherapeutic. Next, the MRI technology would detect a tiny tumour. Now the MRI feeds this information automaticaly to a laser that is callibrated to a specific wavelength that activates the drug. The result is “high temporal and local precision”.

Those are only two examples of the ‘endless opportunities’ of molecular machines, in Feringa’s words – and applications are not limited to pharmaceuticals. Feringa himself talks about self-healing car coatings or wall paint, also called ‘smart coatings’. With a growing world population and a scarcity of materials, smart coatings could help to form longterm coatings, help to spare natural resources, or they could integrate information technology like sensors into the coatings. Other experts envision self-healing infrastructure, for instance plastic water pipes that are able to repair their own leaks. Fraser Stoddart, Feringa’s American-Scottish co-recipient of the 2016 Noble Prize, went into yet another research direction and now builds highly efficient data storage devices based on molecular machines.

 

Ben Feringa giving the first lecture at the 67th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting. Picture/Credit: Julia Nimke/Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

Ben Feringa during his lecture at the 67th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting. Picture/Credit: Julia Nimke/Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

 

In October 2016, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences announced “the dawn of a new industrial revolution of the twenty-first century” based on molecular machines. Feringa himself often emphasises that he is conducting basic research, and he likes to point out that inventions like electric machines, airplanes or smartphones where all the results of basic research – and that they often needed several years or decades to find widespread application. He estimates that in maybe fifty years, doctors will be able to use photo-controlled drugs as described in his Nobel lecture.

 

 

We’re looking forward to hear the lecuture titled ‘Chemical Topology to Molecular Machines’ by Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Feringa’s French co-recipient, on Thursday, 29 June. He will explain the ‘catenane’, a molecule he invented, which consists of two interlocking rings, as well as possible applications of molecular machines.

 

Melania Zauri Wants to Pass On Her Enthusiasm for Science

Interview with #LiNo17 young scientist Melania Zauri

This interview is part of a series of interviews of the “Women in Research” blog that features young female scientists participating in the 67th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting, to increase the visibility of women in research (more information for and about women in science by “Women in Research” on Facebook and Twitter). Enjoy the interview with Melania and get inspired.

 

 

Photo/Credit: Courtesy of Melania Zauri

Photo: Courtesy of Melania Zauri

Melania Zauri, 31, from Italy is an EMBO Postdoc at the Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. Her research interest lies in metabolic alterations that arise in cancer. A particular focus of her research in the recent years has been towards nucleotide metabolism and cancer. With her research, she is trying to understand if this pathway can be challenged to provide an avenue for cancer treatment.

 

What inspired you to pursue a career in science/chemistry?

I am extremely curious by nature and I have always been motivated to answer the many ‘Why this’ and ‘Why that’ questions which arose in my mind. Very early in my life, when I was teenager, I decided I wanted to have something to do with science. In secondary school I had an extremely good biology teacher who always motivated us to try to understand things and to observe the world surrounding us. She would even take us outside on little walks to explore nature. I think that my interest towards science and later biology was shaped by her influence. My family always let me explore and find my way to the answers I wanted; nothing came really obvious for me. That is what inspired me to pursue a career in research, which is essentially the way to find answers to the challenging questions of our times.

 

Who are your role models?

My role model number one is my mother. Without her energy, enthusiasm and support I would not be where I am now. She successfully managed to have a family and a working life and it will always represent for me the idea that if you want something you can achieve it. In general I am fascinated by people that achieved something by putting a lot of effort in what they have done. It is always very motivating for me to learn that success comes from real efforts and not only by any given luck.

 

How did you get to where you are in your career path?

I am from an Italian town in the mountains in the province of L’Aquila. It is since my university years that I left it and moved to study to the oldest university in the western world: Alma Mater Studiorum of Bologna. My dad came with me when I had to take the admission exam to get in the course in Biotechnologies. Luckily I passed it and I was admitted to this fantastic course. In Bologna I learned the fundamentals of a scientific career and a lot of life tips for a successful endeavor in the life sciences. It was there that I first entered in a laboratory and I enjoyed the successes and frustrations of a researcher. In Bologna the course had a really high reputation thanks to the modern setup established by the president of the course Prof. Masotti. Very brilliant teachers and scientists fueled my passion for molecular biology and biochemistry. I learned to ask questions and how to answer them.

I have always been motivated to answer the many ‘Why this’ and ‘Why that’ questions which arose in my mind.

In my practical development as a scientist, I would name, as of fundamental importance, Dr. Bruno Amati and his team at the European Institute of Oncology in Milan, where I worked on my MSc thesis on the role of Myc in stem cell biology, and Prof. Lingner and the EPFL in Lausanne, where I was admitted for a summer school working on telomeric RNA interacting proteins. Later on, I acquired my independence as a scientist under the supervision of Dr. Kriaucionis at the Ludwig Cancer Research within the Oxford University. My Oxford times were gorgeous scientifically and humanely. In there, I was the first PhD student of my supervisor and I could follow my curiosity driven research step by step trying to find the answer to problems as they appeared to me. It was luckily a successful journey that did not stop my motivation to continue with a scientific career. Oxford was a great time for me since I met a lot of role models and super smart people that I always enjoyed having a chat with. My project started from epigenetic and turned into nucleotide metabolism almost from the beginning. That is where my curiosity has been growing in the recent years and in my postdoctoral career too with a desire to broaden the horizon from single genes and enzymes research into a system biology one.

 

What is the coolest project you have worked on and why?

I would define one of my PhD project the coolest one. It started with the idea of affecting DNA methylation in the cells by administering to them epigenetically modified nucleosides. If this would work then we had a way of reversing a pathway that frequently goes wrong in cancer. However, very early I discovered that this was not the case and later on I found out that cells are not ready to recycle these modified forms of nucleosides. Indeed, they would convert into something damaging for the cell that would lead to their death. This process was only present in certain kind of cancer cells and therefore could be used to achieve cancer specificity. For me this revealed to be a very cool project, since it challenged evolution and I could test hands on how perfect the cellular machinery is in avoiding endangering itself with the incorporation of important epigenetic nucleotides. Indeed epigenetic DNA modifications are inherited through cellular replication and errors in their positioning might be lethal for the cells and the pathways that are related to them.

 

Melania_3

What’s a time you felt immense pride in yourself/your work?

I almost never feel pride in myself. There was one time though where I could not believe in reality. When my PhD supervisor got back the reviewers comments from the journal I was already back home in Italy for Christmas holidays. He sent them to me and I thought: Oh no, that is the end of my holidays…When I opened the email it said that he considered them extremely good and I could stay home and enjoy the rest of my holidays. This was when I realised that I could feel proud of my work.

 
 

Photo: Courtesy of Melania Zauri

 

What is a “day in the life” of Melania like?

My typical wet lab scientist day starts around 8 am at home where I check literature while having breakfast. Around 9 am I get to the laboratory and start my day typically in tissue culture or with experiments I think will take longer time. In my intervals or incubation times I check my emails and if long, I catch up on literature or I schedule meetings with coworkers. In my spare time, something I enjoy doing to share my enthusiasm, is science communication (at the moment I manage the Twitter account of my laboratory!). I usually get out of the laboratory around 6 pm to 7 pm and sometimes keep working on data analysis from home. I prefer to be quiet and relaxed and work from home if I have only computer work to accomplish. I need my cooking time and some friends/family time every day and this usually I manage to get it in the evenings.

 

What are you seeking to accomplish in your career?

In my career I would like to make an impact with my research for people suffering from cancer. This would be for me a life fulfilling achievement. In order to accomplish this, at some point of my career I would like to form a small team of scientists and start investigations into challenging areas of cancer research. I would also appreciate the possibility to do some teaching, as this would allow me to give back to the community what I got from my teachers: enthusiasm for science.

 

Melania_2

What do you like to do when you’re not doing research?

If I am not in the lab my curiosity is oriented towards music and cultural activities. In Vienna I had the opportunity to join the choir of St Augustin, one of the best in town. Additionally, I try to maintain a healthy lifestyle and therefore I enjoy cooking from scratch, sourcing good ingredients for my meals and doing a bit of sport to challenge my body. At the moment I am a bit into running as I would like to qualify to run the New York Marathon at some point in my life.

 

Photo: Courtesy of Melania Zauri

 

What advice do you have for other women interested in science/chemistry?

I would say persistence and a bit of self-confidence are good. I would also stress the fact that a good work-life balance and psychological state help in building confidence and in believing that one is the best supporter of oneself. I would say that in many difficult moments or when women are perceived as disadvantaged, it is best to keep strong and to demonstrate that we do not owe things to other people and we can equally compete with man.

 

In your opinion, what will be the next great breakthrough in science/chemistry?

In cancer research, the next breakthrough will be probably the clinical application of the protein degradation technology. Thanks to this technology any protein that can be specifically targeted by a molecule can be selectively degraded. It offers hope in the targeting of previously thought undruggable genes.

 as long as there is gender discrimination at school or within families, women will believe to be inferior to man

What should be done to increase the number of female scientists and female professors?

I think that this is a cultural problem of education and as long as there is gender discrimination at school or within families, women will believe to be inferior to man. I was lucky to grow up in a family that raised me and my brother very similarly on this aspect, as my mother was convinced that man and woman should be considered equals. In many contexts I see this was not the case for everybody. On the other side, I see that in Austria, for example, very limited experiments in a wet laboratory can be conducted as soon as you declare you are pregnant. This might be disadvantageous for women and there should be compensatory mechanisms in place to make sure that this time is not professionally wasted. Many of these things I believe should be discussed at EU level and unified across research locations in the EU.

“My best advice: don’t listen to advice.”

Ada Yonath is an Israeli chemist – an x-ray crystallographer – who spent 20 years studying the ribosome.  Her persistence paid off, in 2000, when, working with other researchers, she successfully mapped the structure of the ribosome, an achievement for which she shared the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Venkatraman Ramakrishnan and Thomas A. Steitz.

The ribosome is a complex molecule, consisting of hundreds of thousands of atoms.  It’s actually a molecular machine (which is one of the key topics of this year’s chemistry-themed Lindau Meeting).

Residing in the cytoplasm outside the cell nucleus, the ribosome is a protein factory. It translates the coded message in DNA into individual amino acids and assembles them into proteins, which are involved in almost every function of living organisms.  

In mammals, there are millions of ribosomes in every cell!  Take a moment to absorb that.  Millions.  In each cell.  I have trouble wrapping my mind around that fact.  It indicates something about the scale of things.  As small as an individual cell is, it somehow contains – among other things(!) – millions of ribosomes, steadily producing proteins.  And, again, each ribosome is a complex network of hundreds of thousands of atoms.  Mapping its structure is essential to understanding how it functions.  And this understanding has provided great insight into the function – and design – of antibiotics, which can kill bacteria by interfering with protein synthesis.

I spoke with Ada at the 2016 Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting – and she is returning this year for her seventh time – because “being able to contribute to young people is one of the miracles that happened to me after I got the Prize.” 

Watch the video below to hear Ada’s advice for young scientists and non-scientists alike. 

On the Trail of Nobel Prizes

The new Lindau Science Trail serves as a permanent embodiment of the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings, their history and first and foremost makes “Nobel knowledge” accessible to everyone. The Lindau Science Trail can be followed not only by those living in and around the picturesque city of Lindau; visitors from all over the world can go on their very own journey of discovery. 
On knowledge pylons that are spread out all around Lindau, one can learn more about the everyday applications of scientific phenomena. And who knows, there might just be a Nobel Laureate waiting around the corner in Lindau you surely can’t rule it out.

Picture/Credit: Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

The knowledge pylon at the harbour of Lindau. Picture/Credit: Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

 

The Lindau Spirit for everyone

Knowledge should be freely available to everyone at all times. This credo is at the heart of the philosophy of the Foundation and the Council for the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings.
For more than 65 years, Nobel Laureates and young scientists from all over the world have come together in Lindau once a year to exchange ideas and learn from each other. The “Lindau Spirit”, which inspires the participants year after year, can now be experienced on the Lindau Science Trail by everyone throughout the entire year.
The Lindau Science Trail consists of a total of 21 knowledge pylons, 15 of which can be discovered on the island of Lindau. On the mainland of Lindau and on Mainau Island there are three pylons each waiting to be explored.

 

This map shows the locations of the different knowledge pylons which can now be discovered on the island of Lindau. Picture/Credit: Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

This map shows the locations of the different knowledge pylons which can now be discovered on the island of Lindau. Picture/Credit: Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

 

The Knowledge Pylons – Something for Everyone

At the knowledge pylons, explorers big and small can learn more about various scientific discoveries and about the different Nobel Prize disciplines in English as well as in German. The pylons cover the three natural science disciplines – Physics, Chemistry and Physiology/ Medicine – as well as Peace and Literature. Two knowledge pylons explain economic theories in a manner which is easily understandable; two others provide insight into how the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings started and tell the story behind the Nobel Prizes. You don’t have to be a science expert to understand the explanations on the pylons. The Lindau Science trail addresses grown-ups as well as children. There is a special children’s section on every pylon.

Spotlight on the “Lindau” Nobel Laureates: The Nobel Laureates that have visited the Lindau Meetings thus far will be honoured at one central spot: on the “kleiner See” that separates mainland Lindau from Lindau island there will soon be a pier where the names of all the Nobel Laureates who have already visited the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings will be listed – more than 450 laureates.

 

Virtual Science Trail: Discovering Science With the App

A dedicated app will allow you to meet the Nobel Laureates virtually on the Science Trail. At six different locations, virtual Nobel Laureates explain why they have received the Nobel Prize. You can even take a selfie with them!
The app also gives you the opportunity to test your freshly acquired ‘Nobel Knowledge’. While ‘hiking’ on the Science Trail you can try to answer the numerous quiz questions. The Rallye can only be taken right on the spot, not at locations remote from the Lindau Science Trail – an open invitation for all science enthusiasts to come and visit Lindau and take the chance to meet Nobel Laureates.

Picture/Credit: preto_perola/istockphoto.com, illustrations: eatmefeedme; editing: rh

With the Lindauer Wissenspfad App, one can test one’s knowledge. Picture/Credit: preto_perola/istockphoto.com, illustrations: eatmefeedme; editing: rh

 

Experience the Lindau Science Trail Back Home or in Your Classroom

Those who cannot physically come to Lindau can still discover the town, the Nobel Laureates and their research by virtually walking along the Science Trail and visiting the pylons in the app. Teachers can use it in the classroom as well.

If the Science Trail is also available virtually what’s the point in taking a field trip to Lindau and experiencing it first-hand? In addition to jointly completing the Science Trail and the Rallye, a surprise is waiting for all students here in Lindau. Teachers, who are interested in a school field trip to Lindau, may contact the Council for the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings for more information and additional material.

Pupils exploring a knowledge pylon. Picture/Credit: Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

Pupils exploring a knowledge pylon. Picture/Credit: Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

 

29 June 2017: The Opening of the Lindau Science Trail

The official opening will take place during the 67th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting (Chemistry) on Thursday, 29 June 2017. The Bavarian Minister of Education, Cultural Affairs and Science, Dr. Ludwig Spaenle and the Lord Mayor of the City of Lindau, Dr. Gerhard Ecker, will then inaugurate the first knowledge pylon at Lindau harbour together with the President of the Council for the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings, Countess Bettina Bernadotte and the chairman of the Prof. Otto Beisheim Foundation, Dr. Fredy Raas.

The realisation of the Lindau Science Trail was enabled by the support of the city of Lindau and the Prof. Otto Beisheim Foundation.

 

Den Nobelpreisen auf der Spur

Der Lindauer Wissenspfad macht ab sofort die Lindauer Nobelpreisträgertagungen, deren Geschichte und vor allem das „Nobelwissen“ für Groß und Klein sicht- und (be-)greifbar. Auf den Spuren von Nobelpreisträgern und ihrer Forschung können alle Lindauerinnen und Lindauer, aber auch Gäste aus der ganzen Welt, auf Entdeckungstour durch Lindau gehen. An insgesamt 21 Wissenspylonen lernen sie dabei mehr über wissenschaftliche Alltagsphänomene. Vielleicht kommt dabei auch der eine oder andere Nobelpreisträger um die Ecke – in Lindau immerhin durchaus denkbar…

Die Leuchtturmstele am Lindauer Hafen. Picture/Credit: Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

Die Leuchtturmstele am Lindauer Hafen. Picture/Credit: Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

 

Der Lindau Spirit für Alle

Wissen sollte immer und überall frei zur Verfügung stehen. Das gehört zum Kernanliegen von Stiftung und Kuratorium der Lindauer Nobelpreisträgertagungen, zu ihrer Mission Education. Die Idee zum Bau des Lindauer Wissenspfades ist daraus entstanden. Die Stadt Lindau hat sie bei der Umsetzung unterstützt.
Schon seit über 65 Jahren kommen in Lindau einmal im Jahr Nobelpreisträger und junge Nachwuchswissenschaftler aus der ganzen Welt zusammen, um sich auszutauschen und voneinander zu lernen. Der Lindau Spirit, von dem die Teilnehmer dabei inspiriert werden, soll jetzt auf dem Lindauer Wissenspfad für jeden und vor allem das ganze Jahr über erlebbar sein.
Der Wissenspfad besteht aus insgesamt 21 Wissenspylonen, 15 davon können auf der Lindauer Insel entdeckt werden. Auf dem Lindauer Festland und auf der Insel Mainau stehen jeweils drei Stelen zur Erkundung bereit. Auf der Karte sind die einzelnen Standorte auf der Lindauer Insel zu sehen.

Die Karte zeigt die verschiedenen Standorte der Wissenspylone, die ab sofort in Lindau entdeckt werden können. Picture/Credit: Archimedes Exhibitions GmbH

Die Karte zeigt die verschiedenen Standorte der Wissenspylone, die ab sofort in Lindau entdeckt werden können. Picture/Credit: Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

 

Für jeden etwas dabei – die Wissenspylone

Auf den unterschiedlichen Pylonen lernen kleine und große Entdecker wissenschaftliche Begebenheiten aus den Bereichen der Nobelpreisdisziplinen kennen und verstehen: es gibt Physik-, Chemie-, und Medizinpylone, aber auch eine Friedens- und eine Literaturstele. Zwei Wissenspylone erklären Theorien aus den Wirtschaftswissenschaften, zwei weitere Stelen erläutern, wie die Lindauer Nobelpreisträgertagungen entstanden sind und was sich hinter dem Nobelpreis verbirgt. Man muss kein Naturwissenschafts-Experte sein, um die Erklärungen auf den Pylonen zu verstehen. Der Wissenspfad richtet sich an viele unterschiedliche Menschen; die Kinderspuren auf jedem Pylon bringen das ‚Nobelwissen‘ auch den jüngsten Forschern näher.

Natürlich bekommen die Nobelpreisträger auf dem Wissenspfad einen besonderen Platz: auf den Stelen wird nicht nur ihre Forschung sicht- und erlernbar gemacht, zukünftig werden sie an der zentralen Station auch besonders geehrt: Auf dem kleinen See wird es in Lindau bald einen Steg geben, der die Namen der Nobelpreisträger verzeichnet, die schon einmal in Lindau zu Gast waren. Und das sind schon mehr als 450 Laureaten!

Virtueller Wissenspfad: Mit der App auf Entdeckungstour

In Zukunft kann man den Nobelpreisträgern auf dem Wissenspfad auch virtuell begegnen. Die App macht das möglich: an sechs verschiedenen Standorten erklären virtuelle Nobelpreisträger, wofür sie den Nobelpreis bekommen haben. Sogar ein Selfie mit Preisträgern ist möglich!
Entlang des Wissenspfads können alle ‚Wissenspfadler‘ das Erlernte in der Rallye testen und über Quizfragen knobeln. Dafür muss man allerdings vor Ort sein. Damit möglichst viele Leute den Weg nach Lindau aufnehmen und den Wissenspfad auch in echt kennen lernen, werden die virtuellen Nobelpreisträger und die Quizfragen nämlich nur am Pylonenstandort freigeschaltet.

Mit der Lindauer Wissenspfad-App kann man in der Rallye z.B. Quizfragen beantworten. Picture/Credit: preto_perola/istockphoto.com, illustrations: eatmefeedme; editing: rh

Mit der Lindauer Wissenspfad-App kann man in der Rallye z.B. Quizfragen beantworten. Picture/Credit: preto_perola/istockphoto.com, illustrations: eatmefeedme; editing: rh

 

Der Wissenspfad auf dem Sofa oder im Klassenraum

Aber auch diejenigen, die nicht nach Lindau kommen (können), haben die Möglichkeit, einen Blick auf Lindau, die Nobelpreisträger und ihre Forschung zu werfen: sie können den Wissenspfad zuhause virtuell ablaufen und die Pylone in der App abrufen. Das können sich auch Lehrer im Unterricht zu Nutze machen.
Der Wissenspfad lädt Schulklassen aber auch explizit ein, nach Lindau zu kommen und sich auf die Spur der Nobelpreise zu machen. Vor Ort kann man deshalb auch gemeinsam einen Preis gewinnen! Interessierte Lehrer können sich gerne mit dem Kuratorium für die Tagungen der Nobelpreisträger in Lindau in Verbindung setzten und weitere Informationen und Materialien erhalten.

Schüler an einem Wissenspylon. Picture/Credit: Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

Schüler an einem Wissenspylon. Picture/Credit: Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

 

Am 29. Juni wird der Lindauer Wissenspfad dann offiziell eröffnet

Der Wissenspfad wird während der 67. Lindauer Nobelpreisträgertagung (Chemie), am Donnerstag, den 29. Juni 2017, eröffnet. Der Bayrische Staatsminister für Bildung und Kultus, Wissenschaft und Kunst, Dr. Ludwig Spaenle und der Oberbürgermeister der Stadt Lindau, Dr. Gerhard Ecker, weihen dann den ersten Wissenspylon am Hafen gemeinsam mit Kuratoriumspräsidentin Bettina Gräfin Bernadotte und dem Vorsitzenden des Stiftungsvorstands der Prof. Otto Beisheim Stiftung, Dr. Fredy Raas, ein.

Ermöglicht wurde der Wissenspfad durch die Unterstützung der Stadt Lindau und der Prof. Otto Beisheim Stiftung.

Big Data Analytics Deliver Materials Science Insights

Finding patterns and structure in big data of materials science remains challenging, so researchers are working on new ways to mine the data to uncover hidden relationships. Credit: Hamster3d/iStock.com

Finding patterns and structure in big data of materials science remains challenging, so researchers are working on new ways to mine the data to uncover hidden relationships. Credit: Hamster3d/iStock.com

 

Developing new materials can be a lengthy, difficult process and innovations in the field come through a combination of serendipity and methodical hard work. Researchers perform many rounds of synthesising new materials and testing their properties, using their chemical knowledge and intuition to relate a material’s structure to its function. The result is materials for tough body armour, thin, powerful batteries or lightweight aircraft components, among many other applications.

To speed materials discovery, researchers are now asking computers to help. Algorithms similar to those that organise our email, photos and online banking can also be used to find patterns in chemical data that relate to a material’s structure and composition.

Photo: R. Schultes/Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

Walter Kohn, Nobel Laureate in Chemistry 1998. Photo: R. Schultes/Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

Traditional computer modelling of materials uses methods recognised with the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1998. Walter Kohn and John Pople shared the prize that year for developing algorithms that modelled molecules using quantum mechanics, improving the accuracy of molecular structure and chemical reactivity calculations. The techniques that Kohn and Pople each developed revolutionised computational chemistry and have continued to be improved to give highly accurate results.

These methods typically work well to predict structural and electronic properties of crystalline metals and metal oxides. But these predictions do not always match measured properties of complex bulk materials and their surfaces under experimental conditions. Predicting properties of bulk materials and their surfaces using current quantum mechanical methods requires lengthy calculations using supercomputers.

To speed up these calculations, chemists are analysing public databases of atomic, chemical and physical properties to find combinations that predict materials properties. They use big-data analytics tools to search for meaningful patterns in the large amounts of data. Algorithms like this already influence our daily lives by filtering spam email, suggesting other items for online shoppers, detecting faces in digital photos, and identifying fraudulent credit card transactions. Although materials scientists have much less data than email providers or online stores, there is still enough publicly available data about atomic properties such as electronegativity, atomic radius and bonding geometry as well as the geometric and electronic structures of various materials that the same analysis tools are still useful. Materials databases include Materials Project in the United States and the Novel Materials Discovery Laboratory in Europe, among others.

Computational materials discovery often involves making predictions for an entire class of materials, such as metals, metal oxides or semiconductors. However, a global prediction may not apply to certain subgroups of materials within that class.

Bryan Goldsmith, a Humboldt postdoctoral fellow at the Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Plank Society in Berlin and a young scientist attending the 67th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting and his colleagues recently applied a data analytics tool called subgroup discovery to see how physical and chemical properties relate to the structure of gold nanoclusters containing varying numbers of atoms. Gold clusters are a model example of how materials properties change from the bulk to nanoscale. Bulk gold is shiny, inert and yellow in color. Gold nanoparticles, however, are red, catalytic and have dynamic structures.

 

The Novel Materials Discovery Laboratory, a European Center of Excellence established in the fall of 2015, has the world’s largest collection of computational materials science data.

 

Using molecular dynamics simulations, the researchers calculated 24,400 independent configurations of neutral, gas-phase gold clusters containing 5 to 14 atoms at temperatures from -173 to 541 °C (100 to 814K). Next, they predicted the ionisation potential, electron affinity and van der Waals forces between atoms in a cluster, among other properties.

Then the researchers generated various mathematical combinations of the predicted chemical data to produce a large number of possible relationships between different subgroups of gold clusters. Finally, they used subgroup discovery to find the relationships that best predicted cluster structure and their electronic properties.

The algorithm rediscovered the known property that gold nanoclusters with even number of atoms are semiconducting, whereas those with an odd number of atoms are metallic. It also revealed something new about forces that stabilise nonplanar gold clusters: van der Waals forces typically thought to stabilise interactions between molecules contributed more to the stability of nonplanar clusters than planar clusters.

 

A computational prediction for a group of gold nanoclusters (global model) could miss patterns unique to nonplaner clusters (subgroup 1) or planar clusters (subgroup 2). Credit: New J. Phys.

A computational prediction for a group of gold nanoclusters (global model) could miss patterns unique to nonplaner clusters (subgroup 1) or planar clusters (subgroup 2). Credit: Goldsmith et al. Uncovering structure-property relationships of materials by subgroup discovery. New J. Phys. 19 (2017) 013031 (CC BY 3.0)

By starting their data analytics with known properties, the researchers hope to develop predictive models that retain physical and chemical information that is easy for other scientists to interpret, Goldsmith says. “We believe that if you can find these simple equations, they can help guide you to deeper understanding, and hopefully lead to new chemistry and materials insights.”

With more powerful computers, larger databases and novel ways to use the data being developed, data analytics could become increasingly important to researchers synthesising new materials. A database of failed reactions could guide the direction of future experiments, and data analytics tools could speed the interpretation of spectra used to characterise molecules and materials. And in time, researchers hope to predict the outcome of a catalytic reaction or materials synthesis. “Data analytics should be an indispensable part of every chemist and material’s scientist toolkit,” Goldsmith says.

Science in Mexico: Long Tradition, Bright Future

Two stelae from Monte Alban, an archaeological site in Oaxaca in south Mexico. These stelae contain what is thought to be one of the oldest calendar signs from Mesoamerica. Image: Siyajkak, CC BY-SA 3.0

Two stelae from Monte Alban, an archaeological site in Oaxaca in south Mexico. These stelae contain what is thought to be one of the oldest depiction of calendar signs from Mesoamerica. Image: Siyajkak, CC BY-SA 3.0

Did you know that Mexico’s first university was founded already in 1551? Or that today’s Mexico is the largest flat-screen TV manufacturer in the world? Mexico has a long and varied tradition of science and technology. The Olmec civilization invented the number zero. Mayan mathematicians and astronomers have perfected its use, for instance in the famous Mayan calendar: this calendar was crucial for determining seedtimes, rainy seasons, festivities, and much more.

On the one hand, there are particularly Mexican topics, like the research of Mayan, Olmec and Aztec civilizations, or the exploration of the Chicxulub crater. The American Nobel Laureate Luis Alverez first suggested in 1980 that an asteroid or comet impact was a major cause for the dinosaurs’ extinction 66 million years ago, together with his son Walter Alvarez. A giant crash would result in an impact winter, making photosynthesis impossible for plants or plankton, thus effectively cutting off major food chains. The discovery in the 1990s of Chicxulub crater near Yucatan peninsula bolstered the Alvarez hypothesis.

On the other hand, Mexican scientists have made several significant contributions to international research. An early example from the field of chemistry is the 1801 discovery of the element Vanadium in Mexico by Andrés Manuel del Río, chair of chemistry and mineralogy at the Seminario de Minería (College of Mines) that had been established in 1792 in what was then called ‘New Spain’. One hundred years later, vanadium was used in steel alloys for the first time: Henry Ford applied these alloys to build the chassis of his famous Model T. Vanadium allowed for reduced weight while simultaneously increasing the tensile strength of steel. Today it’s still mainly used to reinforce steel, and vanadium pentoxide is a common catalyst to produce sulfuric acid.

The Model T is an early example of the long-term and vital economic and scientific connections to the United States. Today, Mexico is the world largest exporter of flat-screen televisions, as well as the second largest electronics supplier to the US, notably smartphones and tablets. The North American Free Trade Agreement NAFTA, established in 1994, has boosted close trade relations in the last twenty years. And although the incumbent American president had rallied against NAFAT, he now declared he won’t terminate it after all.

 

The rectorate building (left) and the CETEC towers at the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education, Monterrey Campus, in Monterrey, Nuevo León, México. Credit: Creative Commons Monterrey, CC BY-SA 3.0

The rectorate building (left) and the CETEC towers at the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education, Monterrey Campus, in Monterrey, Nuevo León, México. Photo: Creative Commons Monterrey, CC BY-SA 3.0

 

For the current electronics boom, Mexican managers can resort to a skilled workforce with experience in automotive and pharmaceutical production. As Aristóteles Sandoval, govenor of Jalisco, a federal Mexican state, points out: “All the products made in Jalisco can be delivered anywhere in the U.S. in less than 24 hours, (…) and the time zone is almost the same.” Besides geographical, there’s cultural proximity: Mexicans speak American English, not British English like many Asians, and American culture and products are well known and understood.

Of course, education contributes considerably to Mexico’s hightech boom. The prestigious Monterrey Intitute of Technology alone has 31 campuses in all regions of the country, teaching more than 90,000 students. And even in remote areas like Oaxaca in the south, the founder of the Oaxaca State Universities System, Modesto Seara-Vázquez, found that the local indigenous languages, which are tonal like Mandarin, give his students a special aptitude to learn mathematics and coding. All students here are at least trilingual: they speak Mixtec or Zapotec, Spanish and English.

 

Computer engineering students at UNAM building a mobile robot. UNAM, the National Autonomous University of Mexico, is one of the oldest and most prestigious universities of the country. Photo: PumitasUNAM, CC BY-SA 4.0

Computer engineering students at UNAM building a mobile robot. UNAM, the National Autonomous University of Mexico, is one of the oldest and most prestigious universities of the country. Photo: PumitasUNAM, CC BY-SA 4.0

But as Octavio Paz wrote, the Mexican Nobel Laureate in Literature: there are always two Mexicos, one developed, one underdeveloped, existing side by side. And although the topics and players have changed since 1950, this sadly still holds true. The news we hear about Mexico is too often about drug wars and murders of politicians and journalists.

There are places where the two Mexicos meet, for instance at the military-style checkpoint for Intel’s ‘Guadalajara Design Center’, Intel’s only research lab in Latin America. The jobs here are not about manufacturing, they’re about creating chips and apps for next generation smartphones. Guadalajara, Jalisco’s capital, is often dubbed the ‘Mexico’s Silicon Valley’, a term it shares with Monterrey further north. More than 120 million dollars have been invested in 300 start-ups since 2014, with at least 25,000 engineers working here.

Even if the distances seem huge between Intel’s lab on the hilltop and the shanty town below, and not just in terms of kilometers, education can help to bridge this gap. As the city’s mayor Enrique Alfaro confides to the Washington Post: “Graduates being courted by Google don’t pick up a gun,” meaning that poverty and unemployment can make the recruitment by drug cartels too easy. Ultimately, only education and employment will brake the vicious cycle of poverty, drugs and violence. This is why the new mayor is implementing school programmes to encourage STEM training, and why he’s installing a tech zone and wants to improve municipal infrastructure for companies. And on the national level, the 57th Mexican president Enrique Peña Nieto announced a new research agenda with increased spending for science and education in 2013.

Mario J. Molina is the first Mexican to be awarded a scientific Nobel prize. In the 1970s, he described, together with his boss F. Sherwood Rowland, how chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) destroy the ozone layer in the stratosphere, thus weakening the Earth’s protective shield against UV radiation. The two chemists found that CFCs released into the atmosphere do not decay until they reach the stratosphere, where they are destroyed by solar radiation. In this process, chlorine atoms are released that finally destroy ozone. They not only published their findings, but also announced them outside of the scientific community to stop the further emission of CFCs.

Finally, their warnings were taken seriously and the harmful substances were banned in the Montreal Protocol in the mid-1980s. This protocol, together with the Vienna Convention two years earlier, can be considered as “perhaps the most successful international treaties the world has seen”, as the prestigious Michigan Journal for International Law wrote. For their findings, Molina, Rowland and Paul Josef Crutzen were awarded the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. In recent years, Molina has been informing the public about the data and dangers of global warning with the same fervour as his fight against CFCs. He is one of the 76 Nobel Laureates to sign the Mainau Declaration 2015 on Climate Change that urges international governments to take decisive steps against global warming. This appeal is now more urgend than ever, as US President Donald Trump plans to reverse his predecessor’s climate policy.

Molina has attended six Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings, and has given four lectures and joined panel discussions on climate change. We’re looking forward to this year’s lecture on June 27th, 2017: ‘Climate Change: Science, Policy and Risks’.

This year, Mexico hosts the International Day at the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting on Monday, June 26th. This day will start bright and early with a Science Breakfast at 07:00 a.m., with Mario Molina attending and Christian González Laporte as moderator, Brussels representative of CONACYT. In the evening, CONACYT Director General Enrique Cabrero Mendoza will give a speech on ‘Science in Mexico: Research and Policies’. The band Mariachi El Dorado will provide a genuine Mexican ambience.

 

Mario Molina delivering his lecture 'The Science and Policy of Climate Change' at the 62th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting in 2012. Photo:

Mario J. Molina delivering his lecture ‘The Science and Policy of Climate Change’ at the 62th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting in 2012. Molina had received his first academic degree at UNAM and later became an assistant professor there. In 2004, he started teaching at the University of California in San Diego. Before that, he has worked at the UC in Irvine, for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and for MIT. In Mexico City, he set up a center for the studies in energy and environment. Photo: Christian Flemming/LNLM