#LiNo17 Daily Recap – Friday, 30 June

The 67th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting ended with the Baden-Württemberg Boat Trip to Mainau Island. It was a day full of science, discussions, joy, genuine delight and even some tears. Enjoy the highlights of the last day of #LiNo17.

 

Video of the day:

 

“I felt like I had the world in my hands.” – Young scientist Hlamulo Makelane

A definite highlight of the day were the heartfelt closing remarks made in the courtyard of Mainau Castle. You can watch the entire Farewell in our Mediatheque.

Hlamulo

Browse through our mediatheque to find all lectures, discussions and more educational videos from the Lindau Meetings.

 

Picture of the day:

Nobel Laureate Rudolph A. Marcus enjoying the Baden-Württemberg Boat Trip to Mainau Island whilst conversing with young scientists. 

67th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting Chemistry, 25.06.2017 - 30.06.2017, Lindau, Germany, Picture/Credit: Christian Flemming/Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings Boattrip to Mainau Island

For even more pictures from the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings, past and present, take a look at our Flickr account.

 

Blog of the day:

For Nobel Laureate Jean-Pierre Sauvage, novelty, teamwork and adventure drove advances in synthesising molecular chains and knots. Read about his work and his advice for the young scientists.

Sauvage

Do take a look at more of our inspring blog posts.

 

Tweets of the day:

 

Last but not least, follow us on Twitter @lindaunobel and Instagram @lindaunobel and keep an eye out for #LiNo17

This is the last daily recap of the 67th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting. The idea behind it was to bring to you the day’s highlights in a blink of an eye. We hope you enjoyed the meeting and wish you all safe travels home.

#LiNo17 Daily Recap – Wednesday, 28 June

With Wednesday ending, we are striding towards the last two days of the 67th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting – but that does most certainly not mean that the next days are getting less exciting than the previous ones. Talking about exciting days, let’s take a look at the highlights of yesterday.

 

Video of the day:

Yesterday, Nobel Laureates Stefan Hell and Richard R. Schrock discussed “Current and Future Game Changers in Chemistry” with Jörg Huslage from the Corporate Research & Development Department of Volkswagen Group and Siddulu Talapaneni, an Indian Young Scientist from the University of South Australia at the Panel Discussion moderated by Geoffrey Carr, Science Editor from The Economist.

Obviously, this is not the only video from the last days and today! You are more than welcome to browse through our mediatheque for more.

 

Picture of the day:

Nobel Laureate Ferid Murad enjoying his coffee break while talking to some of the young scientists.

67th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting Chemistry, 25.06.2017 - 30.06.2017, Lindau, Germany, Picture/Credit: Christian Flemming/Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings Ferid Murad in talk with young researchers

For even more pictures from the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings, past and present, take a look at our Flickr account.

 

Blog of the day:

Focus on Africa: Advancing Science to Advance Humankind – Alaina G. Levine talks with a rising star of Kenyan science, Titus Masese, on the present, presence, and presents of African Science across the globe.

Focus on Africa Slider

Do take a look at more of our inspring blog posts.

 

Tweets of the day:

 

 

Last but not least, follow us on Twitter @lindaunobel and Instagram @lindaunobel and keep an eye out for #LiNo17

Over the course of the next three days, we will keep you updated on the 67th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting with our daily recaps. The idea behind it is to bring to you the day’s highlights in a blink of an eye. The daily recaps will feature blog posts, photos and videos from the mediatheque.

#LiNo17 Daily Recap – Tuesday, 27 June 2017

We are already three days into this year’s chemistry meeting and there are so many interesting things happening. We have collected a huge amount of exhilarating pictures, exceptional lectures and thought-provoking blog contributions. So you can guess that there is so much more that you should definitly check out on our mediatheque than we present to you in our daily recap . Enjoy the following highlights!

 

Video of the day:

“This meeting is about mentorship, and it’s about the future, it’s not about the Nobel Laureates, it is [in fact] about mentoring the next generation of scientists – OUR BEST HOPE FOR THE FUTURE” – Brian Malow has provided us with a live video featuring seven young scientists.

 

 

Picture of the day:

After having the Poster Flashes on Monday, our Poster Session proved to be a success. Frank Biedermann, a young scientist explaining his research about “Supramolecular Sensing Ensembles” to Nobel Laureate Erwin Neher.

67th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting Chemistry, 25.06.2017 - 30.06.2017, Lindau, Germany, Picture/Credit: Christian Flemming/Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings Poster Session

 

For even more pictures from the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings, past and present, take a look at our Flickr account.

 

Blog of the day:

“When scientific issues become publicly controversial, Nobel Laureates have a history of making strong statements at the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings,” writes Melissae Fellet in her new article on science in a post-truth era. Politics and the question of what scientists can do to rebuild trust is one of the main topics being discussed by the participants of the 67th Lindau Meeting.

Post-truth_Slider

Press Talk on ‘Science in a Post-Truth Era’ hosted by Deutsche Welle during the 67th Lindau Meeting. Photo/Credit: Julia Nimke/Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

Do take a look at more of our exciting blog posts.

 

Tweets of the day:

 

Last but not least, follow us on Twitter @lindaunobel and Instagram @lindaunobel and keep an eye out for #LiNo17

 

Over the course of the next four days, we will keep you updated on the 67th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting with our daily recaps. The idea behind it is to bring to you the day’s highlights in a blink of an eye. The daily recaps will feature blog posts, photos and videos from the mediatheque.

#LiNo17 Daily Recap – Sunday, 25 June 2017

“I close my remarks by asking the young students gather this week at the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting to consider joining the effort to combat climate change.” – Steven Chu

Yesterday, the 67th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting started in grand fashion with the festive opening ceremony featuring the warm and heartfelt welcome address by Countess Bettina Bernadotte and a very poignant and moving keynote by Steven Chu. The Nobel Laureate himself was, unfortunately, unable to attend, but his fellow laureate William E. Moerner luckily stepped in to deliver the powerful speech on “Science as an Insurance Policy to the Risks of Climate Change”.

 

Video of the day:

“A changing climate does not respect national boundaries.”
First highlight is Steven Chu’s keynote, read by William Moerner. Chu addressed the highly topical issue of climate change and reminded all of us how important it is to treat the earth well.

Obviously, this is not the only video from yesterday and today! You are more than welcome to browse through our mediatheque for more.

 

Picture of the day:

Standing Ovations
William Moerner’s presentation of Steven Chu’s keynote was one of the most moving moments.

67th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting, 25.06.2017, Lindau, Germany

67th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting, 25.06.2017, Lindau, Germany

For even more pictures from the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings, past and present, take a look at our Flickr account.

 

Blog post of the day:

“A Stellar Meeting Where the Stars Shine Bright, the Science Is Chill, and the Networking Is Chem-Tastic.”
Another highlight is the blog post from science writer Alaina G. Levine. She is back in Lindau for #LiNo17 and gives a preview of the panel discussion on science careers that she will chair on Thursday (replacing Karan Khemka).

Do take a look at more exciting blog posts.

 

Tweets of the day:

 

 

Last but not least, follow us on Twitter @lindaunobel and Instagram @lindaunobel and keep an eye out for #LiNo17

 

Over the course of the next six days, we will keep you updated on the 67th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting with our daily recaps. The idea behind it is to bring to you the day’s highlights in a blink of an eye. The daily recaps will feature blog posts, photos and videos from the mediatheque.

Ben Feringa: Molecular Machines of the Future

Ben Feringa giving the first lecture at the 67th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting. Photo/Credit: Jula Nimke/Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

Nobel Laureate Ben Feringa giving the first lecture at the 67th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting. Photo/Credit: Julia Nimke/Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

The Nobel Laureate gave the #LiNo17 opening lecture with the title ‘The Joy of Discovery’. Ben Feringa grew up on a farm near Groningen, the second of ten siblings. Today, he is professor in Groningen and also received his MSc and PhD degrees there. And just as much as he enjoyed nature as a child, he now enjoys the inifinite possibilities of molecules. In his own words: “We enjoy the adventure into the unkown.” Before starting his lecture, he has some advice in store for the young scientists at the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting: Always look for a challenge, and find teachers who challenge you, persevere, follow your intuition and your dreams – but ‘walk on two feet’, meaning remain realistic, and find a balance between life and research. Looking at his impressive career, and appreciating his obvious delight in his work, it seems that Feringa took his own advice to heart.

It’s truly mind-blowing to see what Ben Feringa and his research group are capable of: they synthesise molecules from inanimate matter that can move autonomously. One striking example are the small ‘spiders’ that you can see crawling around under a microscope. These ‘spiders’ can self-assemble, meaning that several molecules form clusters, and these clusters move completely autonomously as long as ‘fuel’ is provided, in their case sugar. (You can watch the crawling ‘spiders’ in a solution, also called nano-swimmers, on the website of Feringa’s research group, or at the end of his #LiNo17 lecture). Other molecules at Feringa’s Molecular Nanoscience group at the University of Groningen have been fitted with light-sensitive switches, so light of a certain wavelength turns them on and off and also acts as their ‘fuel’.

As Feringa points out himself in his lecture: chemists are great at creating molecules, but it’s extremely difficult to control their dynamic functions – movement, rotation, switches, responses, etc. His most noted invention is his version of the ‘nanocar’ – it was also strongly featured in the 2016 Nobel Prize media coverage. For a nanocar’s engine, you need unidirectional rotation. Feringa and his research group discovered the first man-made molecular rotor that could perform a 360 degree rotation ‘a bit by accident’ in the 1990s. They had been working on an alkene molecule (alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons containing at least one carbon-carbon double bond). This specific alkene could perform a quarter turn in a process called isomerisation: a process in which one molecule is transformed into another with exactly the same atoms, only these atoms are now arranged differently. Suddenly the researchers realised that the molecule had in fact performed a 180 degree turn and hadn’t switched back. Then they wondered: “Maybe we can get it to perform a 360 degree turn.”

 

How the molecular rotor works: double-bond isomerisation and thermal helix inversion (heat) alternate. Image: Ben Feringa group. Source: The Swedish Academy of Sciences

How the molecular rotor works: double-bond isomerisation and thermal helix inversion (heat) alternate. Image: Ben Feringa group. Source: The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

 

Finally, the researchers managed a full rotation with two double-bond isomerisations and two helix inversions induced by heat (see graph above). On the one hand, ‘unidirectional rotation marks the most fundamental breakthrough‘ in the search for molecular motors; on the other hand, the molecule was still too slow – it needed about one hour for the 360 degree turn. Now the researchers set out to build much faster molecules. About sixty different motor designs later, they reached an astounding speed of 10 million rotations per second. But in reality there are some restrictions: for instance, you often cannot get enough energy into these nanosystems to perform at top speed, and the surfaces on which the motors are supposed to perform limit their speed. So realistically, these tiny motors now rotate at about 4000 cycles per second. Next, the researchers fitted four of the enhanced molecules on to axles and added a stator: a molecular four-wheel drive was put on the ‘road’, usually a metal surface.

Today, several research groups around the world build nanocars. And although Feringa’s team received much recognition for their own nanocar, they’re exploring many other possible applications of molecular machines, for instance in medicine: imagine smart drugs that can be ‘switched on’ only at their target area, for instance a tumour. These would be high-precision drugs with very few or even no side-effects, because other body cells would not be affected. In his Lindau lecture, as well as in his Nobel lecture in Stockholm in December 2016, Feringa gave two prominent examples: photo-controlled antibiotics and photo-controlled chemotherapeutics. Into one drug from each category, the Feringa group inserted a light-switch, meaning that the drugs only start working if they’re activated by a certain wavelength of light. The researchers are now working with near-infrared light that has a deep penetration depth, meaning it can even reach remote places deep inside the human body.

 

Nanocar JPG (797x451)

 

With photo-controlled antibiotics, the goal is to ‘train’ the molecules to find their target structures autonomously. Next, their activity would be switched on with an infrared light. Now the drugs would work against a bacterial infection at the target point – no other body cells or bacteria would be affected, making antibiotic restistance more unlikely. And even if the drug leaves the body after treatment, contamination of ground or drinking water would be prevented by precisely engineered half-times of the molecules: they would simply stop being active after a certain amount of time, rendering the build-up of antibiotic restistance outside the human body unlikely as well.

The same holds true for chemotherapeutics: only after a photo-controlled chemotherapeutic reached a tumour, its activity would be switched on, meaning all other body cells would be spared the often severe side-effects. In his Nobel lecture, Feringa describes his dream for future cancer treatments: new imaging technologies like MRI would be linked to a specific laser. First, the patient receives an injection of a photo-controlled chemotherapeutic. Next, the MRI technology would detect a tiny tumour. Now the MRI feeds this information automaticaly to a laser that is callibrated to a specific wavelength that activates the drug. The result is “high temporal and local precision”.

Those are only two examples of the ‘endless opportunities’ of molecular machines, in Feringa’s words – and applications are not limited to pharmaceuticals. Feringa himself talks about self-healing car coatings or wall paint, also called ‘smart coatings’. With a growing world population and a scarcity of materials, smart coatings could help to form longterm coatings, help to spare natural resources, or they could integrate information technology like sensors into the coatings. Other experts envision self-healing infrastructure, for instance plastic water pipes that are able to repair their own leaks. Fraser Stoddart, Feringa’s American-Scottish co-recipient of the 2016 Noble Prize, went into yet another research direction and now builds highly efficient data storage devices based on molecular machines.

 

Ben Feringa giving the first lecture at the 67th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting. Picture/Credit: Julia Nimke/Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

Ben Feringa during his lecture at the 67th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting. Picture/Credit: Julia Nimke/Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

 

In October 2016, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences announced “the dawn of a new industrial revolution of the twenty-first century” based on molecular machines. Feringa himself often emphasises that he is conducting basic research, and he likes to point out that inventions like electric machines, airplanes or smartphones where all the results of basic research – and that they often needed several years or decades to find widespread application. He estimates that in maybe fifty years, doctors will be able to use photo-controlled drugs as described in his Nobel lecture.

 

“My best advice: don’t listen to advice.”

Ada Yonath is an Israeli chemist – an x-ray crystallographer – who spent 20 years studying the ribosome.  Her persistence paid off, in 2000, when, working with other researchers, she successfully mapped the structure of the ribosome, an achievement for which she shared the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Venkatraman Ramakrishnan and Thomas A. Steitz.

The ribosome is a complex molecule, consisting of hundreds of thousands of atoms.  It’s actually a molecular machine (which is one of the key topics of this year’s chemistry-themed Lindau Meeting).

Residing in the cytoplasm outside the cell nucleus, the ribosome is a protein factory. It translates the coded message in DNA into individual amino acids and assembles them into proteins, which are involved in almost every function of living organisms.  

In mammals, there are millions of ribosomes in every cell!  Take a moment to absorb that.  Millions.  In each cell.  I have trouble wrapping my mind around that fact.  It indicates something about the scale of things.  As small as an individual cell is, it somehow contains – among other things(!) – millions of ribosomes, steadily producing proteins.  And, again, each ribosome is a complex network of hundreds of thousands of atoms.  Mapping its structure is essential to understanding how it functions.  And this understanding has provided great insight into the function – and design – of antibiotics, which can kill bacteria by interfering with protein synthesis.

I spoke with Ada at the 2016 Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting – and she is returning this year for her seventh time – because “being able to contribute to young people is one of the miracles that happened to me after I got the Prize.” 

Watch the video below to hear Ada’s advice for young scientists and non-scientists alike. 

On the Trail of Nobel Prizes

The new Lindau Science Trail serves as a permanent embodiment of the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings, their history and first and foremost makes “Nobel knowledge” accessible to everyone. The Lindau Science Trail can be followed not only by those living in and around the picturesque city of Lindau; visitors from all over the world can go on their very own journey of discovery. 
On knowledge pylons that are spread out all around Lindau, one can learn more about the everyday applications of scientific phenomena. And who knows, there might just be a Nobel Laureate waiting around the corner in Lindau you surely can’t rule it out.

Picture/Credit: Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

The knowledge pylon at the harbour of Lindau. Picture/Credit: Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

 

The Lindau Spirit for everyone

Knowledge should be freely available to everyone at all times. This credo is at the heart of the philosophy of the Foundation and the Council for the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings.
For more than 65 years, Nobel Laureates and young scientists from all over the world have come together in Lindau once a year to exchange ideas and learn from each other. The “Lindau Spirit”, which inspires the participants year after year, can now be experienced on the Lindau Science Trail by everyone throughout the entire year.
The Lindau Science Trail consists of a total of 21 knowledge pylons, 15 of which can be discovered on the island of Lindau. On the mainland of Lindau and on Mainau Island there are three pylons each waiting to be explored.

 

This map shows the locations of the different knowledge pylons which can now be discovered on the island of Lindau. Picture/Credit: Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

This map shows the locations of the different knowledge pylons which can now be discovered on the island of Lindau. Picture/Credit: Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

 

The Knowledge Pylons – Something for Everyone

At the knowledge pylons, explorers big and small can learn more about various scientific discoveries and about the different Nobel Prize disciplines in English as well as in German. The pylons cover the three natural science disciplines – Physics, Chemistry and Physiology/ Medicine – as well as Peace and Literature. Two knowledge pylons explain economic theories in a manner which is easily understandable; two others provide insight into how the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings started and tell the story behind the Nobel Prizes. You don’t have to be a science expert to understand the explanations on the pylons. The Lindau Science trail addresses grown-ups as well as children. There is a special children’s section on every pylon.

Spotlight on the “Lindau” Nobel Laureates: The Nobel Laureates that have visited the Lindau Meetings thus far will be honoured at one central spot: on the “kleiner See” that separates mainland Lindau from Lindau island there will soon be a pier where the names of all the Nobel Laureates who have already visited the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings will be listed – more than 450 laureates.

 

Virtual Science Trail: Discovering Science With the App

A dedicated app will allow you to meet the Nobel Laureates virtually on the Science Trail. At six different locations, virtual Nobel Laureates explain why they have received the Nobel Prize. You can even take a selfie with them!
The app also gives you the opportunity to test your freshly acquired ‘Nobel Knowledge’. While ‘hiking’ on the Science Trail you can try to answer the numerous quiz questions. The Rallye can only be taken right on the spot, not at locations remote from the Lindau Science Trail – an open invitation for all science enthusiasts to come and visit Lindau and take the chance to meet Nobel Laureates.

Picture/Credit: preto_perola/istockphoto.com, illustrations: eatmefeedme; editing: rh

With the Lindauer Wissenspfad App, one can test one’s knowledge. Picture/Credit: preto_perola/istockphoto.com, illustrations: eatmefeedme; editing: rh

Download the App here.

 

Experience the Lindau Science Trail Back Home or in Your Classroom

Those who cannot physically come to Lindau can still discover the town, the Nobel Laureates and their research by virtually walking along the Science Trail and visiting the pylons in the app. Teachers can use it in the classroom as well.

If the Science Trail is also available virtually what’s the point in taking a field trip to Lindau and experiencing it first-hand? In addition to jointly completing the Science Trail and the Rallye, a surprise is waiting for all students here in Lindau. Teachers, who are interested in a school field trip to Lindau, may contact the Council for the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings for more information and additional material.

Pupils exploring a knowledge pylon. Picture/Credit: Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

Pupils exploring a knowledge pylon. Picture/Credit: Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

The realisation of the Lindau Science Trail was enabled by the support of the city of Lindau and the Prof. Otto Beisheim Stiftung.

 

Den Nobelpreisen auf der Spur

Der Lindauer Wissenspfad macht ab sofort die Lindauer Nobelpreisträgertagungen, deren Geschichte und vor allem das „Nobelwissen“ für Groß und Klein sicht- und (be-)greifbar. Auf den Spuren von Nobelpreisträgern und ihrer Forschung können alle Lindauerinnen und Lindauer, aber auch Gäste aus der ganzen Welt, auf Entdeckungstour durch Lindau gehen. An insgesamt 21 Wissenspylonen lernen sie dabei mehr über wissenschaftliche Alltagsphänomene. Vielleicht kommt dabei auch der eine oder andere Nobelpreisträger um die Ecke – in Lindau immerhin durchaus denkbar…

Die Leuchtturmstele am Lindauer Hafen. Picture/Credit: Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

Die Leuchtturmstele am Lindauer Hafen. Picture/Credit: Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

 

Der Lindau Spirit für Alle

Wissen sollte immer und überall frei zur Verfügung stehen. Das gehört zum Kernanliegen von Stiftung und Kuratorium der Lindauer Nobelpreisträgertagungen, zu ihrer Mission Education. Die Idee zum Bau des Lindauer Wissenspfades ist daraus entstanden. Die Stadt Lindau hat sie bei der Umsetzung unterstützt.
Schon seit über 65 Jahren kommen in Lindau einmal im Jahr Nobelpreisträger und junge Nachwuchswissenschaftler aus der ganzen Welt zusammen, um sich auszutauschen und voneinander zu lernen. Der Lindau Spirit, von dem die Teilnehmer dabei inspiriert werden, soll jetzt auf dem Lindauer Wissenspfad für jeden und vor allem das ganze Jahr über erlebbar sein.
Der Wissenspfad besteht aus insgesamt 21 Wissenspylonen, 15 davon können auf der Lindauer Insel entdeckt werden. Auf dem Lindauer Festland und auf der Insel Mainau stehen jeweils drei Stelen zur Erkundung bereit. Auf der Karte sind die einzelnen Standorte auf der Lindauer Insel zu sehen.

Die Karte zeigt die verschiedenen Standorte der Wissenspylone, die ab sofort in Lindau entdeckt werden können. Picture/Credit: Archimedes Exhibitions GmbH

Die Karte zeigt die verschiedenen Standorte der Wissenspylonen, die ab sofort in Lindau entdeckt werden können. Picture/Credit: Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

 

Für jeden etwas dabei – die Wissenspylonen

Auf den unterschiedlichen Pylonen lernen kleine und große Entdecker wissenschaftliche Begebenheiten aus den Bereichen der Nobelpreisdisziplinen kennen und verstehen: es gibt Physik-, Chemie-, und Medizinpylonen, aber auch eine Friedens- und eine Literaturstele. Zwei Wissenspylonen erklären Theorien aus den Wirtschaftswissenschaften, zwei weitere Stelen erläutern, wie die Lindauer Nobelpreisträgertagungen entstanden sind und was sich hinter dem Nobelpreis verbirgt. Man muss kein Naturwissenschafts-Experte sein, um die Erklärungen auf den Pylonen zu verstehen. Der Wissenspfad richtet sich an viele unterschiedliche Menschen; die Kinderspuren auf jedem Pylon bringen das ‚Nobelwissen‘ auch den jüngsten Forschern näher.

Natürlich bekommen die Nobelpreisträger auf dem Wissenspfad einen besonderen Platz: auf den Stelen wird nicht nur ihre Forschung sicht- und erlernbar gemacht, zukünftig werden sie an der zentralen Station auch besonders geehrt: Auf dem kleinen See wird es in Lindau bald einen Steg geben, der die Namen der Nobelpreisträger verzeichnet, die schon einmal in Lindau zu Gast waren. Und das sind schon mehr als 450 Laureaten!

Virtueller Wissenspfad: Mit der App auf Entdeckungstour

In Zukunft kann man den Nobelpreisträgern auf dem Wissenspfad auch virtuell begegnen. Die App macht das möglich: an sechs verschiedenen Standorten erklären virtuelle Nobelpreisträger, wofür sie den Nobelpreis bekommen haben. Sogar ein Selfie mit Preisträgern ist möglich!
Entlang des Wissenspfads können alle ‚Wissenspfadler‘ das Erlernte in der Rallye testen und über Quizfragen knobeln. Dafür muss man allerdings vor Ort sein. Damit möglichst viele Leute den Weg nach Lindau aufnehmen und den Wissenspfad auch in echt kennen lernen, werden die virtuellen Nobelpreisträger und die Quizfragen nämlich nur am Pylonenstandort freigeschaltet.

Mit der Lindauer Wissenspfad-App kann man in der Rallye z.B. Quizfragen beantworten. Picture/Credit: preto_perola/istockphoto.com, illustrations: eatmefeedme; editing: rh

Mit der Lindauer Wissenspfad-App kann man in der Rallye z.B. Quizfragen beantworten. Picture/Credit: preto_perola/istockphoto.com, illustrations: eatmefeedme; editing: rh

 

Der Wissenspfad auf dem Sofa oder im Klassenraum

Aber auch diejenigen, die nicht nach Lindau kommen (können), haben die Möglichkeit, einen Blick auf Lindau, die Nobelpreisträger und ihre Forschung zu werfen: sie können den Wissenspfad zuhause virtuell ablaufen und die Pylonen in der App abrufen. Das können sich auch Lehrer im Unterricht zu Nutze machen.
Der Wissenspfad lädt Schulklassen aber auch explizit ein, nach Lindau zu kommen und sich auf die Spur der Nobelpreise zu machen. Vor Ort kann man deshalb auch gemeinsam einen Preis gewinnen! Interessierte Lehrer können sich gerne mit dem Kuratorium für die Tagungen der Nobelpreisträger in Lindau in Verbindung setzten und weitere Informationen und Materialien erhalten.

Schüler an einem Wissenspylon. Picture/Credit: Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

Schüler an einem Wissenspylon. Picture/Credit: Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings

 

Ermöglicht wurde der Wissenspfad durch die Unterstützung der Stadt Lindau und der Prof. Otto Beisheim Stiftung.

“We Need Diversity in Science,” Says Hlamulo Makelane

Interview with #LiNo17 young scientist Hlamulo Makelane

This interview is part of a series of interviews of the “Women in Research” blog that features young female scientists participating in the 67th Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting, to increase the visibility of women in research (more information for and about women in science by “Women in Research” on Facebook and Twitter). Enjoy the interview with Hlamulo and get inspired.

 

Photo: Courtesy of Hlamulo Makelane

Photo: Courtesy of Hlamulo Makelane

Hlamulo Makelane, 30, from South Africa is a postdoctoral researcher at the University of the Western Cape, South Africa. Her research focuses on the development of highly selective and sensitive methods for determination of organic pollutants in wastewater. This requires the synthesis of polymers and the application of a very novel electrochemical technique in sensor technology, as well as using unusually uncommon sample matrices.

 

What inspired you to pursue a career in science/chemistry?

The most interesting aspect of science that has inspired me is the generation of evidence-based solutions to national and global challenges because as a scientist knowledge gained from research is the gateway to making a positive difference for humankind.

 

Who are your role models?

I do not have specific scientists as role models; I always look at other people’s career in science or even non-scientific fields and get inspired. Personally, I have been very fortunate to have a mother who always inspired me not to limit myself and encouraged me to do what I think is right for my career. I have been inspired also by many people I interacted with in conferences, workshops and in my daily life.

 

How did you get to where you are in your career path?

I became interested in science subjects at high school because of my Physical Science and Mathematics teachers and through participation in the Phalaborwa Foundation Programme for Technological Careers (PROTEC). I had no idea about chemistry as a career and thought that chemistry is one of the baseline subjects one has to do for different career paths in science. Choosing a career path and developing a passion for chemistry came after a school visit to one of the mines around Phalaborwa where I met a female analytical chemist who explained her work, and thus I realised that I could make a difference in the world through chemistry. The stereotype that science isn’t for girls and constant reminders that sciences are difficult and completing a degree as women in science is not easy unless one is extremely intelligent never stopped me from pursuing my career in science. I was persuaded and went on to obtain a PhD in Chemistry with a focus on environmental management for water quality.

 

Photo: Courtesy of Hlamulo Makelane

Photo: Courtesy of Hlamulo Makelane

 

My PhD project involved environmental electrochemistry for developing highly selective and sensitive sensor methods for determining organic pollutants in oil-polluted wastewater. I really enjoyed the experience of working with environmental related issues and understanding the impact of organic pollutants on the environment. This was my introduction into the world of electrochemistry and sensor development using dendrimers and polymers. Following encouragement from the PhD research outcomes, I applied for a post-doctoral fellowship at the University of the Western Cape, where I completed my PhD. The post-doc research that I am currently working on is entitled “Ultra-sensitive AC voltammetric polymer electrode for signalling priority organic pollutants (POP) in coal-polluted wastewater”. This research is enabling me to contribute immensely to the critical issues related to the environmental state of the country and also contribute to the nation building effort of the country through it. Through the experience gained during my PhD research projects and being exposed to science, technology and innovation (STI) indicators at the Centre for Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators (CeSTII) as a post-doc fellow, I am more certain that I want to pursue a research career in water quality research for environmental management. This includes environmental electrochemistry and environmental science and technology indicators, as I have developed a skill set suited to the field. I have travelled a lot to national and international conferences, seminars and workshops where I presented my work as I strive to explore new relationships between ideas and facts and in doing so sharpening tools and methodologies in my discipline. I have published my research work in the top sensors and electrochemistry journals.

 

What is the coolest project you have worked on and why?

I think that most of the projects I have worked on were the coolest projects thus far, because they all contributed to my career growth in many different ways. I find it more interesting that most of these projects enabled me to produce results that are evidence-based solutions to the national and global challenges.

 

What’s a time you felt immense pride in yourself/your work?

When I was nominated as an early-career scholar to present my research work in 2013 at Brown University’s International Advanced Research Institutes (BIARI) at “Connections and Flows: Water, Energy and Digital Information in the Global South”. I felt a great sense of achievement because it was my first time to present my research work in the innovative interdisciplinary institute, where a diverse group of young engineers and engineering faculty as well as from engineering education, policymakers and those working in agriculture, environmental studies, urban studies or related fields attended.

 

What is a “day in the life” of Hlamulo like?

Since I started my career path in research it’s difficult to come up with a “day in the life”; however, it has been a phenomenal journey thus far because I learn something new each day. I write down the things I need to do for the day and I do not remember having a boring day because there’s always something new to learn or do. Some days involve desktop research, reading papers and scientific manuscript writing, and other days involve lab work with more practical work and data analysis. The work usually goes from 9 am to at least 6 pm; however, there are days where I have to work until late.

 

Photo: Courtesy of Hlamulo Makelane

Photo: Courtesy of Hlamulo Makelane

 

What are you seeking to accomplish in your career?

Firstly, I would like to continue with the development of selective and sensitive sensor techniques for the determination of organic pollutants in wastewater as there are many exciting polluted wastewater questions for environmental management focusing on water quality that need to be answered. Secondly, I would like to focus on science, technology and innovation (STI) to develop the experimental techniques and design appropriate for environmental assessment approaches of a specific case, which will also include building on current technology to assess the environmental impacts.

 

What do you like to do when you’re not doing research?

I like reading, traveling, meeting with friends, gym and sometimes going for a hike.

 

What advice do you have for other women interested in science/chemistry?

The outright bias that has impacts on our education and career choices as women still exist; however, if you are interested in science/chemistry, go for it, and you will enjoy the discovery that the journey brings. The stereotype that sciences are challenging for women should not prevent you from following your career path in science. Challenge yourself to even go beyond the first degree and obtain the highest degree because I believe that if I made it, you can also make it. We need diversity in science and if you are interested in increasing the number of women in science it will also empower you to think differently about the global challenges, and your creativity will result in good solutions.

 

In your opinion, what will be the next great breakthrough in science/chemistry?

There are many breakthroughs anticipated in shaping the environmental challenges through science/chemistry, but ultra-sensitive sensor systems with high selectivity for the detection of organic pollutants at femto- to atto-molar detection limits are envisaged to be one of the next breakthrough. The device will be cost-effective, reliable and consist of easy-to-use technologies suitable for accurate determination of organic pollutants in effluents, collecting the requisite data necessary in setting environmental standards, and ensuring compliance to regulations on emission limits.

 

What should be done to increase the number of female scientists and female professors?

This question does not have one answer due to the increasing number of challenges female scientists/professors are currently facing. Gender bias still plays a big role in higher education, which prevents an increase in the number of female scientists and female professors. Some of the challenges related to the number of female scientist not increasing the way we would like to see is the lack of support from their departments or institutions where they are based. There is a need, therefore, for the government to address this issue by implementing and monitoring policies that encourages the number of female scientists and female professors to be recognised. The policies should also directly support female scientist by creating a good working environment without being compared to their male colleagues because the science world is still dominated by male scientist. The created platform should work towards closing the gap between male and female scientist as well as bringing inclusion of females in science, which can have far-reaching benefits them. This will enable female scientist to grow in their career and to be recognised for their hard work. Therefore, more women would be attracted to stay in sciences, enhance their careers in the field and become role models to young and upcoming female scientist.

The Impact of Fundamental Science on Researchers and Society

It was not surprising that after the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2016 some of the most frequently asked questions were “What can we use your research for?” and “Does it have any application?”. These questions may have different origins: First, for non-experts the research honoured with this prize is very difficult to grasp because it is so abstract. Thus, having a (pseudo)application or a visualisation of the research can be powerful. It is no surprise that the “nano-car” received such widespread recognition. The human mind tends to seek some kind of concrete example to help them understand abstract concepts. Second, society finds that research of any kind should have at least some sort of accountability towards its funders, which is oftentimes the public. Third, in a world where we face many challenges, it can be difficult – if not impossible – to see how such research contributes to solving daily problems around us (be it hunger, war, energy, climate change, health, etc.). This “missing link” can lead to frustration and provoke the desire to see immediate benefits and products that improve daily life. Today, an increasing number of aspects of life are put under the scrutiny of innovation, productivity and economic measures. It is thus getting more and more difficult to justify research that has no immediate gain. Fundamental research as such thus seems to be locked in a fight for funding, for professorships and sometimes even for its existence.

The term fundamental science or research as opposed to applied research is used herein to describe research without an immediate apparent value, application or product in mind, often also referred to as basic research. Oftentimes, it sets out to answer a specific (set of) question(s). For this kind of research the following criteria are essential: (1) its outcome is often unknown, (2) the researcher is working at the frontier of knowledge (no one has done anything similar before) and (3) the research extends current knowledge. The research efforts that won this year’s Nobel Prize, but also the discovery of gene editing and experiments conducted at CERN, are excellent examples of this kind of research.

 

#LiNo17 participant Michael Lerch is currently carrying out his doctoral research in the laboratory of Ben Feringa at the University of Groningen. Photo/Credit: Dusan Kolarski

#LiNo17 participant Michael Lerch is currently carrying out his doctoral research in the laboratory of Ben Feringa at the University of Groningen. Photo/Credit: Dusan Kolarski

 

In times of tightening budgets for research and increasing economisation of universities and research outputs in coordination with increased student numbers, fundamental research has been facing scrutiny and has been under attack. This is not necessarily bad as such scrutiny and scarcity of resources could arguably increase quality of research. However within these discussions, some beneficial aspects and effects of fundamental science tend to be forgotten. Hence, I would like to highlight how fundamental science shapes its practitioners and impacts society. Fundamental research is a school of life and plays an important role in fostering critical thinking and creativity. Fundamental science further benefits society, for example, by generating knowledge, by enabling unexpected long-term applications, by forming independent and critical citizens and sometimes by supporting leadership and teaching. For fundamental research to be effective, aspects like credibility in a post-factual world are paramount. It is also critical that researchers and a public that is willing to listen are equal partners in dialogue. To enable such a dialogue, the social competence of researchers becomes important. It is the researcher’s responsibility to actively go out and tell the public why scientists do what they do, what the benefits are and why fundamental research is so important. The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings have been playing an essential role in this for decades. In addition, Nobel Laureates are often visionaries of their times and inspiring role-models for both successful approaches in research and experts in the social competences and communication that are so important for the dialogue with the general public.

 

Impact on students

Fundamental science in the way it has been set up since the advent of universities is first and foremost an educational experience for the student. Doing a Ph.D. is often a transformative process and has an immense influence on personal development. This transformative experience is directly linked to the nature of fundamental research. Three aspects are worth highlighting in this context: (1) social toolbox/character formation, (2) critical and analytical thinking and (3) creativity.

One can form character through different tools and approaches. While desirable character traits change with time and are a matter of public debate, there are certain traits that are associated with being successful in life: resilience, frustration tolerance, knowledge of your own limitations, grit, integrity and reliability. Scientific research is challenging and can be very frustrating. As one sets out to learn the basic tools and skills needed to be a successful researcher, one is immediately confronted with one’s own limitations, frontiers of personal but also general knowledge. Many students, although used to writing small pieces of scientific work, have never conducted independent intellectual work before. Doing so is very hard and even more so frustrating. Besides increased anxiety and a feeling of inadequacy, many students feel unhappy about their chosen work as they are not prepared for the stress and frustration that comes with it. Overcoming the daily challenges of research requires hard work, resilience, dedication and persistence and contributes to the education of responsible, independent global citizens.

Furthermore, science has a very high standard and code of conduct at its core. This teaches students integrity and reliability. Appropriate supervision and coaching can be paramount to a student’s success. If one talks to successful Ph.D. students that had a lot of freedom during their doctoral years, they will often say that the first year felt like a lost year: “I did not have a clue how to do research”, “I was so inefficient in the beginning” or “I did not know why and how I should be doing research”. By talking further, it often becomes apparent that even though scientifically this initial period of time might feel “unproductive”, it actually was a period of fundamental transformation of a person’s thinking and provided him or her with the toolbox necessary for research. And it is this aspect, in my opinion, that makes fundamental research valuable as an educational experiment that goes far beyond research itself.

 

Michael Lerch is currently carrying out his doctoral research in the laboratory of Ben Feringa at the University of Groningen. Photo/Credit: Dusan Kolarski

The doctoral candidate develops molecular photoswitches that can control biological functions. Photo/Credit: Dusan Kolarski

 

However, persistence, resilience and hard-work will not bring you all the way. Mental capabilities such as discipline of mind as well as critical and analytical thinking are also of crucial importance. What is taught at university is thus essential for further success in research. The approach to fundamental research makes all the difference between being productive and losing sight of a goal and purpose. This approach, together with the mental, social and intellectual tools that come with it, is something that needs to be taught to younger students and researchers. Take responsibility for yourself, be proactive, choose what you are working for, know why you have chosen this and be able and willing to defend this in front of others. This is not only a scientific education, but in many ways also a political one: learn to not just accept facts as such, but verify them as well as possible, realise the importance of perseverance and that nothing that really matters comes without effort, and build resilience. That does not mean that with having the right approach to research doing it on a daily basis becomes easy – far from it. But having a framework to understand why one is doing something and what it can lead to can help build the resilience needed to succeed not only in science but also in life. In addition, fundamental scientific research is much too frustrating if you do not have the mental and scientific toolbox to at least achieve “mini” victories by reaching intermediate milestones that are publishable and that allow you to feel productive in a certain way. This is also the reason why it is generally advisable to learn from the best practitioners in the field.

Finally, creativity is essential. In physical sciences, where most experiments fail, creativity keeps research going, helps us to see the problems faced each time from a different angle, allows us to come up with new ideas and look at the subject under investigation in ways no-one has ever looked at before.

 

Impact on society

The educational transformation achieved through research described above is important not just for the researcher but also for society. The majority of trained professionals will spill over from academia into other areas of work including industry, consultancy and services. Transferrable skills are important here. Beyond the oft-quoted skills such as presenting, supervision and time-management, exposure to fundamental research is, to a much greater extent, fundamental training in thinking and behaviour, which has benefits for society. Unfortunately, these aspects are often overlooked, because it is so difficult to make non-scientists understand what it really means to conduct fundamental research.

Our places of work are in the midst of ongoing changes. Technological advances are transforming our environment and the way we work and live. Industry 4.0 and advances in automation and artificial intelligence will make knowledge workers more important. The tools and skills acquired through research allow us to find our way in such an environment. Purely economically speaking, the knowledge and skills gained make researchers useful in a broad variety of positions and empower them to be productive and independent workers who make novel discoveries. In addition, beyond the immediate philosophically beneficial gain of knowledge, the answers found through fundamental research are often picked up later in a completely unrelated context and can lead to impressive applications: LCD displays, photodynamic therapy and green fluorescent protein, to name but a few.

The academic world is international with many researchers studying abroad, visiting and experiencing different cultures and regions of the world. With increasing regionalism and the growing importance of nation-states, cultural understanding and global ties are essential. It is then also the openness to new things and the ability to work in multicultural and international teams that make researchers highly valuable additions for employers.

 

Michael studies molecular photoswitches that can control biological functions. Photo/Credit: Dusan Kolarski

Michael in the Feringa lab at the University of Groningen. Photo/Credit: Dusan Kolarski

 

Conclusion

It is important to regularly reflect on the role scientists play in society and on the training that students receive. When fighting for the importance and relevance of fundamental scientific research, researchers have to focus on the aspects discussed and make clear to lay people that fundamental science can make a difference. They also need to explain that research not only has a purpose per se but also that, if done right, it can have tremendous additional beneficial effects, which spill over into our society and impact our future.

Nonetheless, fundamental science also faces challenges from within: researchers need to be more realistic and transparent when communicating goals and practices to a general audience. For an understanding and listening audience, one needs trust. This trust, however, is difficult to build, especially if scientific evidence becomes opinion. Overpromising will certainly not help here. Researchers need to carefully evaluate when and in what way they promote their work and science in general. For parts of society that understand the scientific method, it is necessary and effective to talk about the process of research and why researchers do it instead of just talking about impacts and applications. For other parts of society that lack such an understanding, however, it will be more effective to fight for science without explaining what and why one does something,and this challenges fundamental science: it will always depend to a certain extent on funding sources that need to be satisfied. Scientists need to be aware of this and develop the necessary arguments and the social tact to promote their work. Fundamental scientists are exposed to the frontiers of knowledge on a daily basis. This is sometimes a tough but very often also a rewarding thing to do (playground-analogy). But most importantly, it shapes us and forces us to think beyond boundaries. Many of the leading scientists of the current and past generations have done so during the Lindau Meetings and will also do so this year!